Salem Maritime National Historic Site
  • Home
  • Downloads
  • Return to Portal
  • Birds at Saugus Iron Works

    Some birds eat plant material and insects, which makes them omnivores. Omnivores act as primary consumers and secondary consumers in the food chain.

    Below is a list of bird species you might encounter on the Nature Trail, organized by their role in the food chain. It is by no means a complete list. Over thirty bird species have been identified in the park.

    Bird Species

    Primary Consumers (herbivores)

    • Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feeds primarily on seeds
    • American goldfinch (Spinus tristis) primarily eats seeds, buds, maple sap. Will occasionally eat insects and feed them to young.

    Primary Consumers & Secondary Consumers (omnivores)

    • Herring gull (Larus argentatus)
    • Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)
    • Canada goose (Branta canadensis
    • Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
    • Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata)
    • Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia
    • Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)
    • Black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus
    • Red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus

    Secondary Consumers (carnivores)

    • Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) feeds primarily on fish
    • Chimney swift (Chaetura pelagica) feeds primarily on insects
    • Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) feeds primarily on insects


    • Herbivore: animal whose primary food source is plant material; primary consumer in a food chain.
    • Omnivore: animal who eats plant material and animal matter for energy; acts as primary consumer and/or secondary consumer in a food chain.
    • Carnivore: meaning "meat eater;" animal whose food source is animal tissue or meat; secondary consumer or higher in a food chain.